CMC/PVA Bio-ink Composite Reinforced by Hydroxyapatite Base on Lorjuk Shells Waste for Cartilage Regeneration Using the 3D Printing Method

Muhammad Nur Slamet | Indonesia

CMC/PVA Bio-ink Composite Reinforced by Hydroxyapatite Base on Lorjuk Shells Waste for Cartilage Regeneration Using the 3D Printing Method

Muhammad Nur Slamet

Indonesia

Detail

The CMC/PVA/HA product is an innovation for the manufacture of bio-ink 3D printing materials for bone implant applications. CMC/PVA/HA or carboxymethyl cellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol)/hydroxyapatite are composites that are soluble in water, nontoxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable. The hydroxyapatite used is bio-inorganic because it was synthesized from the abundant waste of lorjuk shells on Kenjeran beach, Surabaya.